[新聞試譯] 德國國會正式批准 2038 年全面廢止燃煤發電

Germany approves coal phaseout by 2038

德國批准於 2038 年前全面淘汰燃煤發電


German lawmakers have backed a legislative package to end the use of coal in less than two decades. But activists have decried the measures, saying they aren’t bold enough to mitigate the impact of climate change.

德國的聯邦議會(下議院)通過一項立法計劃,要在不到二十年內的時間裡全面終止煤炭的使用。但是,某些激進氣候主義者仍譴責該項法案,聲稱「這些措施還遠遠不夠減輕氣候變化的影響。」

The Bundestag and Bundesrat — Germany’s lower and upper houses of parliament — passed legislation on Friday that would phase out coal use in the country in less than two decades as part of a road map to reduce carbon emissions.

“The fossil age in Germany comes to an irrevocable end with this decision,” said Economy Minister Peter Altmaier. Environment Minister Svenja Schulze called it a “great political success for all those who care about the climate-friendly future of our children and grandchildren.”

The legislative package has two main features. The first establishes a legal avenue for the gradual reduction in emissions by 2038 the latest, while the second targets regional economies that would be impacted by the phaseout.

德國聯邦委員會(Bundesrat)和德國聯邦議院(Bundestag)–即德國的上下議會– 在週五通過了法案。作為減碳籃圖的一部分,該國將在不到二十年的時間內逐步淘汰國內的燃煤發電。

德國經濟部長 Peter Altmaier 表示,「這一個決定,將使德國過去的化石燃料時代走向無法回頭的終結。」而環境部長 Svenja Schulze 則稱該法案為「屬於所有關心子子孫孫、那些對氣候友善的人們的政治壯舉。」

該立法方案主要有兩個特色。其一為在 2038 年之前逐步減少排放量建立了法律依據;其二則針對那些因逐步淘汰而受影響的區域經濟體。

Preparing for the future

為未來做好準備

Coal-producing regions in the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg will have access to €40 billion ($45 billion) to help absorb the impact. Those funds are also expected to go towards restructuring regional economies, re-skilling workers and expanding local infrastructure.

Financial compensation is also be available to coal plant operators who face losses as a result of the early phaseout. However, compensation is contingent on operators announcing plans by 2026 to shutter plants and cease other emissions-intensive activity.

Michael Vassiliadis, who heads the IG BCE trade union, called the measures a “historic landmark.” He said the package has provided a safety net for workers affected by the phase out and would provide them with the necessary support to transition to future sectors.

德國的北萊茵 - 威斯伐倫邦(North Rhine-Westphalia)、薩克森自由邦(Saxony)、薩克森 - 安哈特邦(Saxony-Anhalt)和布蘭登堡邦(Brandenburg)的產煤區將獲得 400 億歐元(約 450 億美元,1.3 兆新台幣)的資金,以緩和因政策所受到的衝擊。這些資金 預計還將用於重組區域經濟、提高工人技術和擴大當地基礎設施。

因提前淘汰而蒙受損失的燃煤電廠,也可領取經濟補償。然而,補償金將取決於廠商所宣佈的、到 2026 年關閉發電廠並停止其他碳排放性活動的計劃。

IG BCE 工會負責人 Michael Vassiliadis 將這些措施稱為「歷史地標」。他說,這些計劃將為那些因淘汰而受影響的工人提供安全網,並為他們提供過渡到未來轉行後工作的必要支持。

‘Historic error’

「歷史性的錯誤」

However, not everyone agrees that the measures are enough to mitigate climatechange.

Environmentalist activists say the legislation falls short of its ultimate aim, with Greenpeace managing director Martin Kaiser describing it as a “historic error.”

German Green party chief Annalena Baerbock said the legislation was “oblivious to the future” and instead called on the government to complete Germany’s coal phase out by 2030 the latest.

Earlier this year, a DeutschlandTrend survey found that 27% of Germans believe climate change is the most pressing issue facing the country, just slightly behind refugees and immigration policy.

Germany is seeking to establish a carbon-neutral economy by 2050. The European Commission has also pushed forward with similar plans for the EU.

但是,並不是每個人都同意這些措施有辦法緩解氣候變遷。

環保主義者聲稱,這項立法並沒有達到最終目標。綠色和平組織董事總經理 Martin Kaiser 將其稱為「歷史性的錯誤」。

德國綠黨主席 Annalena Baerbock 表示,這項立法「無視未來」,並呼籲政府應該在 2030 年之前就完成德國的廢碳計劃。

今年初,Deutschland Trend 的一項調查發現,有 27% 的德國人認為氣候變遷是國內面臨的最緊迫問題之一,僅次於難民和移民政策。

德國正在尋求到 2050 年建立「碳中和經濟」(carbon-neutral economy)。歐盟的委員會也為歐盟推進了類似計劃。